Reframing Cultural Diplomacy: The Instrumentalization of Culture under the Soft Power Theory

Authors

  • Mariano Martín Zamorano Cultural and Heritage Management, University of Barcelona, Spain

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3384/cu.2000.1525.1608165

Keywords:

Cultural diplomacy, soft power, instrumentalization, branding, propaganda

Abstract

Although cultural diplomacy has grown in importance in recent years, there is no consensus on its definition. Cultural diplomacy is commonly framed in terms of soft power: the capacity of persuasion and attraction that allows the state to construct hegemony without using coercive methods. In this article, I offer a critical analysis of this theory’s limitations. To shed light on this situation, I provide an historical analysis of cultural diplomacy. Based on this historical analysis and on an extensive desk research, I examine the dominant methodological and conceptual articulation of soft power in cultural diplomacy literature to clarify how the logical framework of soft power favors a specific and restrained conception of these policies, narrowing its understanding and legitimating its economic and political instrumentalization.

References

Andreescu, Ioana (2009): “From the ”Castle” to the ”Agora”: Romanian Cultural Institutes Abroad in the Making of National Culture”, Central European University.

Appel Ronit, Assaf Irony, Steven Schmerz and Ayela Ziv (2008): Cultural Diplomacy: An Important but Neglected Tool in Promoting Israel’s Public Image, Herzliya: IDC Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy and Strategy.

Arndt, Richard (2009): ’¿Cultura o propaganda? Reflexiones sobre medio siglo de diplomacia cultural en Estados Unidos. ’. César Villanueva Rivas (ed.) Diplomacia pública y cultural, México: Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior.

Arndt, Richard (2005): The first resort of kings: American cultural diplomacy in the twentieth century, Dulles: Brassey’s.

Aronczyk, M. (2008): ”Living the Brand”: Nationality, Globality and the Identity Strategies of Nation Branding Consultants, International Journal of Communication, 2, 41-65.

Ayers, Margaret (2010): “Promoting Public & Private Reinvestment in Cultural Exchange-Based Diplomacy”, Series on International Cultural Engagement, New York: Robert Sterling Clark Foundation.

Bélanger, Louis (1994): “La diplomatie culturelle des provinces canadiennes”, Études internationales, 25, 33, 421-452. DOI: 10.7202/703350ar

Bélanger, Louis (1999): “Redefining Cultural Diplomacy: Cultural Security and Foreign Policy in Canada” Political Psychology, 20, 4, 677-699. DOI: 10.1111/0162-895X.00164

Bell, D. (1976): The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism, Portsmouth: Heinemann Educational Books.

Bianchini, F., (1993): Urban Cultural Policy in Britain and Europe: Towards Cultural Planning, London: Institute for Cultural Policy Studies.

Bound, Kirsten; Briggs, Rachel; Holden, John; Jones, Samuel. (2007): Culture is a central component of international relations. It’s time to unlock its full potential..., London: Demos.

Bourdieu, Pierre (2000): Poder, Derecho y Clases Sociales, España: Editorial Desclée de Brouwer.

Bourdieu, Pierre and Passeron, Jean Claude (1977): La reproducción. Elementos para una teoría del sistema de enseñanza, Barcelona: Laia.

Brenner, Neil (2004): New State Spaces Urban Governance and the Rescaling of Statehood, Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199270057.001.0001

Castells, Manuel (2009), Comunicación y poder, Madrid: Alianza.

Chartrand, Harry Hillman (1992): “International cultural affairs: a 14 country survey”, Journal of Arts Management, Law & Society, 22, 2, 134-154. DOI: 10.1080/10632921.1992.9944400

Criekemans, David (2006) “How subnational entities try to develop their own ‘paradiplomacy’.

The case of Flanders (1993-2005).” International conference Challenges for Foreign Ministries: Managing Diplomatic Networks and Optimising Value. Génova: Section International Politics University of Antwerp Belgium.

Cull, Nicholas J. (ed.). (2009): Public Diplomacy: Lessons from the Past, Los Angeles: Figueroa Press.

Cummings, Milton C., Jr. (2003): Cultural Diplomacy and the United States Government: A Survey, Washington D.C: Center for Arts and Culture.

De Raymond, Jean Francois (2000): L’Action culturelle extérieure de la France La Documentation Française, Paris: Collection Les Études.

De Stacy Harrison, Patricia (2005): Cultural Diplomacy: The Linchpin of Public Diplomacy. Report of the Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy, Washington: U.S. Department of State.

Dewey, Patricia & Margaret J. Wyszomirski (2004): ”International Issues in Cultural Policy and Administration: A Conceptual Framework for Higher Education.” Presented at the International Conference on Cultural Policy Research (ICCPR). Montreal, Quebec: August 25-28.

Djerejian, Edward P. (2003): Changing Minds Winning Peace: A new strategic direction for U.S. public diplomacy in the Arab & Muslim world, Washington: The Advisory Group on Public Diplomacy for the Arab and Muslim World.

Espinosa, José Manuel. (1976): Inter-American Beginning of us Cultural Diplomacy 1936-1948, Washington, D. C: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs-Department of State.

Feigenbaum, Harvey B (2001): “Globalization and cultural diplomacy”, Art, Culture & the National Agenda. Issue Paper, Washington: Center for arts and culture.

Feigenbaum, Harvey B (2010): “The Political Economy of Cultural Diversity in Film and Television”, J. P. Singh (ed.): International Cultural Policies and Power, New York: Palgrave, 77-83. DOI: 10.1057/9780230278011_7

Ferguson, Niall. (2005): Coloso: Auge y decadencia del imperio americano, Madrid: Debate.

Finn, Helena K. (2003): “The Case for Cultural Diplomacy: Engaging Foreign Audiences”, Foreign Affairs, 82, 6, 15-20. DOI: 10.2307/20033753

Foucault, M. (1992): Microfísica del poder, Madrid: La Piqueta.

Getino, Octavio (2009): “Notas sobre lo regional y lo subregional en las relaciones del MERCOSUR cultural con América Latina y la Unión Europea”, Pensamiento Iberoamericano, 4, 167-188.

Giacomino, Claudio A. (2009): Cuestión de imagen: diplomacia cultural en el siglo XXI: razones y modalidades, Buenos Aires: Biblos.

González-Chiaramonte, Claudio (2009): “Expandiendo paradigmas, rediseñando fronteras: La diplomacia cultural norteamericana y la búsqueda de una comunidad interamericana de académicos”, Revista Esboços, 20, 22, 223-244.

Gramsci, Antonio (1984): Los intelectuales y la organización de la cultura, Buenos Aires: Nueva Visión.

Gramsci, Antonio (1975): Cartas desde la cárcel, Vol 2, Madrid: Cuadernos para el Diálogo.

Harvey, D. (1989): “From Managerialism to Entrepreneurialism: The Transformation in Urban Governance in Late Capitalism”. Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, 71, 1, 3-17. DOI: 10.2307/490503

Hervik, Peter (2012): The Danish Muhammad Cartoon Conflict, Sweden: Malmö University.

Hocking, B. (1993): Localizing Foreign Policy. Non-Central Governments and Multilayered Diplomacy, New York: St-Martin’s Press. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-349-22963-5

Hsiao, Michael and Yang, Alan (2008): “Transformations in China’s Soft Power toward ASEAN”, ChinaBrief, 22, 11-15.

Isar, Yudhishthir Raj (2008): “Cultural policy: issues and interrogations in an international perspective”, Beckman, Svante and Sten Månsson (eds.): KulturSverige 2009 Problemanalys och statistik, Linköping: SweCult, 74-79.

Jessop, B. (2002): The Future of the Capitalist State, London: Polity.

Kennedy, L. (2003): “Remembering September 11: Photography as Cultural Diplomacy”, International Affairs, 79, 315–326. DOI: 10.1111/1468-2346.00310

Keohane, Robert O. and Nye, Joseph (1972): Transnational Relations and World Politics, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. DOI: 10.4159/harvard.9780674593152

Kisatzsy, Deborah (1999): “Voice of America and Iran, 1949–1953: US liberal developmentalism, propaganda and the Cold War, Intelligence and National Security”, Intelligence and National Security, 14, 3, 160-185. DOI: 10.1080/02684529908432557

Koppes, Clayton R.; Black, Gregory D. (1990): Hollywood Goes to War: How Politics, Profits, and Propaganda Shaped World War II Movies, California: University of California Press.

Kostadinova, Tonka (2011): “Cultural diplomacy in war-affected societies: international and local policies in the post-conflict (re)construction of religious heritage in former Yugoslavia.’, paper presented at the Academy for Cultural Diplomacy, Berlin, June 10-17.

Kotler, P., Haider, D.H. and Rein, I. (1993): Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States and Nations, New York: The Free Press.

Le Duc, Florent (2009): Culture as a tool for development: challenges of analysis and action, Paris: ACTED.

Lenczowski, John (2007): Cultural diplomacy, political influence, and integrated strategy, Washington: The Institute of World Politics.

Lenczowski, John (2011): Full Spectrum Diplomacy and Grand Strategy. Reforming the Structure and Culture of U.S. Foreign Policy, Lanham: Lexington Books.

Leonard, M. (1997): Britain: renewing our identity, London: Demos.

MacKenzie, David (2013): “An early effort in cultural diplomacy: The Canadian Co-operation Project and Canadian tourism”, International Journal 68, 4, 576-590. DOI: 10.1177/0020702013511185

Mannheim, J. B. (1994): Strategic Public Diplomacy & American Foreign Policy, New York: Oxford University Press.

Mark, Simon (2008): A Comparative Study of the Cultural Diplomacy of Canada, New Zealand and India, Auckland: University of Auckland.

Mark, Simon (2009): A Greater Role for Cultural Diplomacy, Netherlands: Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’.

Melissen, Jan (2006): “Reflections on Public Diplomacy Today”, Speech Delivered at the Conference “Public Diplomacy”, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey, Ankara, 6-th of February.

Memis, S. (2010): “Sharing the power of “cultural relations”: strategic planning, monitoring and evaluation at the British Council”. Public diplomacy magazine, 3, 57-69.

Miller, T and Yúdice, G. (2004): Política cultural, Barcelona: Gedisa.

Mitchell, J. M. (1986): International Cultural Relations (Key Concepts in International Relations), London: Allen and Unwin.

Morgenthau, Hans (1990): Escritos sobre política internacional, Barcelona: Tecnos.

Nafziger, James A. R; Robert Kirkwood Paterson and Alison Dundes Renteln. (2010): Cultural Law: International, Comparative, and Indigenous, Cambridge: University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511751004

Ndlovu, Sifiso Mxolisi (2010): “Sports as cultural diplomacy: the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa’s foreign policy”, Soccer & Society, 11, 1-2, 144-153. DOI: 10.1080/14660970903331466

Noya, Javier (2006) “Una diplomacia pública para España”, Real Instituto Elcano de Estudios Internacionales y Estratégicos, 11.

Noya, Javier (2005): “El poder simbólico de las naciones” Real Instituto Elcano de Estudios Internacionales y Estratégicos.

Nye, Joseph (2002): The Paradox of American Power: Why the World’s Only Superpower Can’t Go It Alone, New York: Oxford.

Nye, Joseph (2004): Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics, New York: Public Affairs.

Nye, Joseph (2008): “Public Diplomacy and Soft Power”, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 616, 1, 94-109. DOI: 10.1177/0002716207311699

Paquin, S. (2004): Paradiplomatie et Relations Internationales: théorie des stratégies internationales des régions face à la mondialisation. Brussels: Presses Interuniversitaires Européennes.

Parsons, Anthony (1984): “’Vultures and Philistines’: British Attitudes to Culture and Cultural Diplomacy”, International Affairs, 61, 1, 1-8. DOI: 10.2307/2619776

Paschalidis, Gregory (2009): “Exporting national culture: histories of Cultural Institutes abroad”, International Journal of Cultural Policy, 15, 3, 275-289. DOI: 10.1080/10286630902811148

Rius Ulldemolins, Joaquim and Mariano Martín Zamorano (2014): “Spain’s nation branding project Marca España and its cultural policy: the economic and political instrumentalization of a homogeneous and simplified cultural image”, International Journal of Cultural Policies, 21, 1, 20-40.

Rodríguez Morató, Arturo (2012): “The Culture Society: A Heuristic for Analyzing Cultural Change in the Global Age”, Sales, Arnaud (ed.): Sociology Today: Social Transformations in a Globalizing World, London: Sage, 316-339. DOI: 10.4135/9781446288955.n14

Rosendorf, N. (2000): “Social and Cultural Globalization”, J. Nye and J. Donahue (eds.): Governance in a Globalizing World, Washington: Brookings Institution, 109-134.

Ryniejska–Kiełdanowicz, Marta (2009): “Cultural Diplomacy as a Form of International Communication”. In Institute for Public Relations. http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/Ryniejska_Kieldanowicz.pdf (accessed in 2/11/2014).

Russett Bruce; John Oneal, Michaelene Cox (2000) ”Clash of Civilizations, or Realism and Liberalism Déjà Vu? Some Evidence”, Journal of Peace Research 37:5.

Sablosky, Juliet Antunes (2003): Recent trends in Department of State support for cultural diplomacy: 1993-2002, Washington: Georgetown University.

Saddiki, Said (2009): “El papel de la diplomacia cultural en las relaciones internacionales”, Revista CIDOB d’afers internacionals, 88, 107-118.

Sadlier, Darlene (2012): Americans All: Good Neighbor Cultural Diplomacy in World War II, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Schneider, Cynthia (2005): “Culture Communicates: US Diplomacy that Works”, Jan Melissen (ed.): The New Public Diplomacy: Soft Power in International Relations New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 147-168. DOI: 10.1057/9780230554931_8

Schneider, Cynthia (2006): “Cultural Diplomacy: Why It Matters, What It Can – and Cannot -- Do?” Short Course on Culture Industries, Technologies, and Policies Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia August 30.

Schultz, George P. (1997): “Diplomacy in the Information Age” Paper presented at the Conference on Virtual Diplomacy, U.S. Institute of Peace, Washington, D.C., April 1.

Singh, J. P. (2008): Negotiation and the Global Information Economy, New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511551918

Singh, J. P. (2010): International Cultural Policies and Power, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1057/9780230278011

Topić M. and C. Sciortino (2012): “Cultural Diplomacy and Cultural Imperialism: A Framework for the Analysis. Introduction study”, Topić, M.; Rodin, S. (eds.): Cultural diplomacy and Cultural imperialism: European perspective(s), Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 9-49.

Trumpbour, John (2002): Selling Hollywood to the World: The United States and European Struggles for Mastery of the Global Film Industry 1920-1950, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Urfalino, Philippe (1996): L’invention de la politique culturelle, Paris: La Documentation Française.

USIA (1999): The United States Information Agency: A Commemoration, Washington DC: United States Information Agency.

Valderrama, Fernando (1995): A history of UNESCO, Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

Villanueva, César (2007): Representing Cultural Diplomacy: Soft Power, Cosmopolitan Constructivism and Nation Branding in Mexico and Sweden, Sweden: Växjö University Press.

Watson, Adam (1991): Diplomacy. The dialogue between states, London: Routledge.

Wiesand, Andreas Joh (2007): National Policies Influencing Cultural Cooperation and Mobility in Europe: An overview of Research Results, Bonn: European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research.

Wright Mills, Ch. (1966): La imaginación sociológica, La Habana: Revolucionaria.

Wyszomirski, Margaret J., Christopher Burgess and Catherine Peila (2003): International Cultural Relations: A Multi-Country Comparison, Ohio: Center for Arts and Culture.

Zaharna, S. Rhonda (2009): “Mapping out a Spectrum of Public Diplomacy Initiatives”, Nancy Snow and Philip Taylor (eds.): Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy, New York: Routledge, 86-100.

Zimmer, Annette and Toepler, Stefan (1996): ”Cultural Policies and the Welfare State: The Cases of Sweden, Germany, and the United States”, The Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society, 26, 167-193. DOI: 10.1080/10632921.1996.9942961

Zimmern, Alfred (1936): The League of Nations and the rule of law 1918 –1935, London: Macmillan and Company.

Downloads

Published

2016-11-08